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四氣調神大論:汉英白话对照《黄帝内经》素问之二
2012年06月27日 | 黄帝内经 | 浏览 10,019 | 暂无评论
四氣調神大論
Major Discussion on Regulation of Spirit According to the Changes of the Four Seasons
春三月,此謂發陳,天地俱生,萬物以榮,夜臥早起,廣步於庭,被髮緩形,以使志生,生而勿殺,予而勿奪,賞而勿罰,此春氣之應養生之道也。逆之則傷肝,夏為寒變,奉長者少。
【今译】春季的三个月谓之发陈,是推陈出新,生命萌发的时令。天地自然,都富有生气,万物显得欣欣向荣。此时,人们应该入夜即睡眠,早些起身,披散开头发,解开衣带,使形体舒缓,放宽步子,在庭院中漫步,使精神愉快,胸怀开畅,保持万物的生机。不要滥行杀伐,多施与,少敛夺,多奖励,少惩罚,这是适应春季的时令,保养生发之气的方法。如果违逆了春生之气,便会损伤肝脏,使提供给夏长之气的条件不足,到夏季就会发生寒性病变。

【英译】[In] the three months of spring, all things on the earth begin to grow. The natural world is resuscitating and all things are flourishing. [People may] sleep early in the night and get up early in the morning, taking a walk in the courtyard with hair running free to relax the body and enliven the mind. [Such a natural resuscitating process should be] activated instead of being inhibiteded, promoted instead of being deprived and encouraged instead of being destroyed. This is what adaptation to Chunqi (Spring-Qi ) means and this is the Dao (the principle) for Yangsheng (cultivation of health ). Any violation of this rule may impair the liver and result in cold diseases in summer [due to] insufficient supply for growth [in summer].

夏三月,此謂蕃秀,天地氣交,萬物華實,夜臥早起,無厭於日,使志無怒,使華英成秀,使氣得泄,若所愛在外,此夏氣之應養長之道也。逆之則傷心,秋為痎瘧,奉收者少,冬至重病。
【今译】夏季的三个月,谓之蕃秀,是自然界万物繁茂秀美的时令。此时,天气下降,地气上腾,天地之气相交,植物开花结实,长势旺盛,人们应该在夜晚睡眠,早早起身,不要厌恶长日,情志应保持愉快,切勿发怒,要使精神之英华适应夏气以成其秀美,使气机宣畅,通泄自如,精神外向,对外界事物有浓厚的兴趣。这是适应夏季的气候,保护长养之气的方法。如果违逆了夏长之气,就会损伤心脏,使提供给秋收之主的条件不足,到秋天容易发生疟疾,冬天再次发生疾病。

【英译】The three months of summer is the period of prosperity. Tianqi (Heaven-Qi ) and Diqi (Earth-Qi) have converged and all things are in blossom. [People should] sleep late in the night and get up early in the morning, avoiding any detestation with longer hot daytime and anxiety in life, trying to delight themselves and enabling Qi to flow smoothly. [Such an attitude toward life in summer] is just like the outward manifestation of a cheerful state of mind. This is what adaptation to Xiaqi (Summer-Qi) means and this is the Dao (principle) for Yangsheng (cultivation of health). Violation [of this rule ] may impair the heart and result in Jienue (malaria) in autumn and severe disease in winter [due to] insufficient supply for astringency [in autumn] .

秋三月,此謂容平,天氣以急,地氣以明,早臥早起,與雞俱興,使志安寧,以緩秋刑,收斂神氣,使秋氣平,無外其志,使肺氣清,此秋氣之應養收之道也,逆之則傷肺,冬為飱泄,奉藏者少。
【今译】秋季的三个月,谓之容平,自然界景象因万物成熟而平定收敛。此时,天高风急,地气清肃,人应早睡早起,和鸡的活动时间相仿,以保持神志的安宁,减缓秋季肃杀之气对人体的影响;收敛神气,以适应秋季容平的特征,不使神思外驰,以保持肺气的清肃功能,这就是适应秋令的特点而保养人体收敛之气的方法。若违逆了秋收之气,就会伤及肺脏,使提供给冬藏之气的条件不足,冬天就要发生飧泄病。

【英译】The three months of autumn is the season of Rongping [ripening]. In autumn it is cool, the wind blows fast and the atmosphere is clear. [People should) sleep early in the night and get up early in the morning just like Ji (hens and roosters). [They should] keep their mind in peace to alleviate the soughing effect of autumn, moderating mental activity to balance Qiuqi (Autumn-Qi) and preventing outward manifestation of sentiments to harmonize Feiqi (Lung-Qi). This is what adaptation to Qiuqi (Autumn-Qi) means and this is the Dao (principle) for Yangshou (cultivation of health and regulation of daily life). Any violation [of this rule] will impair the lung and leads to Sunxie (diarrhea with undigested food in it) in winter [due to] insufficient supply for storage [in winter].

冬三月,此謂閉藏,水冰地坼,無擾乎陽,早臥晚起,必待日光,使志若伏若匿,若有私意,若已有得,去寒就溫,無泄皮膚使氣亟奪,此冬氣之應養藏之道也。逆之則傷腎,春為痿厥,奉生者少。
【今译】冬天的三个月,谓之闭藏,是生机潜伏,万物蛰藏的时令。当此时节,水寒成冰,大地龟裂,人应该早睡晚起,待到日光照耀时起床才好,不要轻易地扰动阳气,妄事操劳,要使神志深藏于内,安静自若,好象有个人的隐秘,严守而不外泄,又象得到的渴望得到的东西,把他密藏起来一样;要守避寒冷,求取温暖,不要使皮肤开泄而令阳气不断地损失,这是适应冬季的气候而保养人体闭藏机能的方法。违逆了冬令的闭藏之气,就要损伤肾脏,使提供给春生之气的条件不足,春天就会发生痿厥之疾。

【英译】The three months of winter is the season for storage. The water freezes and the earth cracks. [Cares must be taken] not to disturb Yang. [People should] sleep early in the night and get up late in the morning when the sun is shining, physically maintaining quiet just like keeping private affairs or as if having obtained [what one has desired]. They should guard themselves against cold and try to keep warm, avoiding sweating so as to prevent loss of Yangqi. This is what adaptation to Dongqi (Winter-Qi) means and this is the Dao (principle) for Yangcang (cultivating health and promoting the storing functions of the body) . Any violation will impair Shenqi (Kidney-Qi) and reduce the energy for the following season, leading to Weijue (dysfunction, weakness and coldness of the limbs) in spring due to insufficient supply for growth [in spring].

天氣,清淨光明者也,藏德不止,故不下也。天明則日月不明,邪害空竅,陽氣者閉塞,地氣者冒明,雲霧不精,則上應白露不下。交通不表,萬物命故不施,不施則名木多死。惡氣不發,風雨不節,白露不下,則菀稾不榮。賊風數至,暴雨數起,天地四時不相保,與道相失,則未央絕滅。唯聖人從之,故身無奇病,萬物不失,生氣不竭。
【今译】天气,是清净光明的,由于天德隐藏不露,运行不止,所以不会下泄。如果天德暴露,就会出现日月昏暗,阴霾邪气侵害山川,阳气闭塞不通,大地昏蒙不明,云雾弥漫,日色无光,相应的雨露不能下降。天地之气不能交通,万物的生命就不能绵延。生命不能绵延,自然界高大的树木也会死亡。恶劣的气候发作,风雨无时,雨露当降而不降,草木不得滋润,生机郁塞,茂盛的禾苗也会枯槁不荣。贼风频频而至,暴雨不时而作,天地四时的变化失去了秩序,违背了正常的规律,致使万物的生命未及一半就夭折了。只有圣人能适应自然变化,注重养生之道,所以身无大病,因不背离自然万物的发展规律,而生机不会竭绝。

【英译】Tianqi (Heaven-Qi) is clear and pure. It contains De (power) and never stops moving. That is why it never descends. [If] the sky is bright, the sun and the moon will become dim. [As a result,] Xie (Evil) harms Kongqiao (external orifices) if Yangqi [in the heavens] is blocked, Diqi (Earth-Qi) Maoming, clouds and fog continue to permeate through, then dew, that corresponds to the Diqi (Earth-Qi) in the sky, will not fall. [If this happens, ] the communication between the upper and the lower (the earth and the heavens) will not take place, making it impossible for all the things in the natural world to continue their development. Even the largest trees will die. If Eqi ( Virulent-Qi) emerges, if wind, rain and dew fail to appear at the right time, grasses and trees will become withered. [In addition,] frequent attack of Zeifeng (Thief-Wind) and rainstorm, the disorder [of Yin and Yang of] the heavens and the earth in the four seasons and the violation of the Dao (the law of nature) will lead to immature death of everything. Only the sages can follow [such natural changes] . That is why they do not contract any disease [when such disastrous events take place]. [If] all the things in nature do not violate [the principles of health cultivation], their vitality will never be exhausted.

逆春氣,則少陽不生,肝氣內變。逆夏氣,則太陽不長,心氣內洞。逆秋氣,則太陰不收,肺氣焦滿。逆冬氣,則少陰不藏,腎氣獨沈。
【今译】违逆了春生之气,少阳就不会生发,以致肝气内郁而发生病变。违逆了夏长之气,太阳就不能盛长,以致心气内虚。违逆了秋收之气,太阴就不能收敛,以致肺热叶焦而胀满。违逆了冬藏之气,少阴就不能潜藏,以致肾气衰弱。

【英译】Violation of Chunqi (Spring-Qi ) will prevents Shaoyang from growing, [leading to diseases due to] stagnation of Ganqi (Liver-Qi). Violation of Xiaqi (Summer-Qi ) will prevents Taiyang from developing, [resulting in] deficiency of Xinqi (Heart-Qi). Violation of Qiuqi (Autumn-Qi) will prevents Taiyin from astringing, [leading to] dryness and distension of Feiqi ( Lung-Qi). Violation of Dongqi ( Winter-Qi) will prevents Shaoyin from hiding, [leading to] sinking of Shenqi (Kidney-Qi).

夫四時陰陽者,萬物之根本也。所以聖人春夏養陽,秋冬養陰,以從其根,故與萬物沈浮於生長之門。逆其根,則伐其本,壞其真矣。故陰陽四時者,萬物之終始也,死生之本也,逆之則災害生,從之則苛疾不起,是謂得道。道者,聖人行之,愚者佩之。
【今译】四时阴阳的变化,是万物生命的根本,所以圣人在春夏季节保养阳气以适应生长的需要,在秋冬季节保养阴气以适应收藏的需要,顺从了生命发展的根本规律,就能与万物一样,在生、长、收藏的生命过程中运动发展。如果违逆了这个规律,就会戕伐生命力,破坏真元之气。因此,阴阳四时是万物的终结,是盛衰存亡的根本,违逆了它,就会产生灾害,顺从了它,就不会发生重病,这样便可谓懂得了养生之道。对于养生之道,圣人能够加以实行,愚人则时常有所违背。

【英译】[The changes of] Yin and Yang in the four seasons are the roots of all the things [in nature]. So the sages cultivate Yang in spring and summer while nourish Yin in autumn and winter in order to follow such roots (the changes of Yin and Yang in different seasons). Violation of these roots• means destruction of the Ben (primordial base) and impairment of the body. Thus the [changes of] Yin and Yang in the four seasons are [responsible for] the growth, decline and death of all things. Violation of it brings about disasters while abidance by it prevents the occurrence of diseases. This is what to follow the Dao (law of nature) means. The Dao (law of nature) is followed by the sages, but violated by the foolish.

從陰陽則生,逆之則死,從之則治,逆之則亂。反順為逆,是謂內格。是故聖人不治已病,治未病,不治已亂,治未亂,此之謂也。夫病已成而後藥之,亂已成而後治之,譬猶渴而穿井,鬭而鑄錐,不亦晚乎。
【今译】顺从阴阳的消长,就能生存,违逆了就会死亡。顺从了它,就会正常,违逆了它,就会乖乱。相反,如背道而行,就会使机体与自然环境相格拒。所以圣人不等病已经发生再去治疗,而是治疗在疾病发生之前,如同不等到乱事已经发生再去治理,而是治理在它发生之前。如果疾病已发生,然后再去治疗,乱子已经形成,然后再去治理,那就如同临渴而掘井,战乱发生了再去制造兵器,那不是太晚了吗?

【英译】Following [the rules of] Yin and Yang ensures life [while] violating them leads to death. Abidance by them brings about peace while violation of them results in disorders. If the violation is taken as abidance, [disease] known as Neige (inner conflict) will be caused. Therefore, the sages usually pay less attention to the treatment of a disease, but more to the prevention of it. To resort to treatment when a disease has already occurred and to resort to regulation when a disorder has already been caused is just like to dig a well [when one feels] thirsty and to make weapons when a war has already broken out. It is certainly too late!

    中文名称:黄帝内经
    英文名称:Huangdi Neijing; Inner Canon of Huangdi; Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor
    定义:现存最早的中医理论著作,约成书于战国时期。

    春季的三个月谓之发陈,是推陈出新,生命萌发的时令。天地自然,都富有生气,万物显得欣欣向荣。此时,人们应该入夜即睡眠,早些起身,披散开头发,解开衣带,使形体舒缓,放宽步子,在庭院中漫步,使精神愉快,胸怀开畅,保持万物的生机。不要滥行杀伐,多施与,少敛夺,多奖励,少惩罚,这是适应春季的时令,保养生发之气的方法。如果违逆了春生之气,便会损伤肝脏,使提供给夏长之气的条件不足,到夏季就会发生寒性病变。

    夏季的三个月,谓之蕃秀,是自然界万物繁茂秀美的时令。此时,天气下降,地气上腾,天地之气相交,植物开花结实,长势旺盛,人们应该在夜晚睡眠,早早起身,不要厌恶长日,情志应保持愉快,切勿发怒,要使精神之英华适应夏气以成其秀美,使气机宣畅,通泄自如,精神外向,对外界事物有浓厚的兴趣。这是适应夏季的气候,保护长养之气的方法。如果违逆了夏长之气,就会损伤心脏,使提供给秋收之主的条件不足,到秋天容易发生疟疾,冬天再次发生疾病。

    秋季的三个月,谓之容平,自然界景象因万物成熟而平定收敛。此时,天高风急,地气清肃,人应早睡早起,和鸡的活动时间相仿,以保持神志的安宁,减缓秋季肃杀之气对人体的影响;收敛神气,以适应秋季容平的特征,不使神思外驰,以保持肺气的清肃功能,这就是适应秋令的特点而保养人体收敛之气的方法。若违逆了秋收之气,就会伤及肺脏,使提供给冬藏之气的条件不足,冬天就要发生飧泄病。

    冬天的三个月,谓之闭藏,是生机潜伏,万物蛰藏的时令。当此时节,水寒成冰,大地龟裂,人应该早睡晚起,待到日光照耀时起床才好,不要轻易地扰动阳气,妄事操劳,要使神志深藏于内,安静自若,好象有个人的隐秘,严守而不外泄,又象得到的渴望得到的东西,把他密藏起来一样;要守避寒冷,求取温暖,不要使皮肤开泄而令阳气不断地损失,这是适应冬季的气候而保养人体闭藏机能的方法。违逆了冬令的闭藏之气,就要损伤肾脏,使提供给春生之气的条件不足,春天就会发生痿厥之疾。

    天气,是清净光明的,由于天德隐藏不露,运行不止,所以不会下泄。如果天德暴露,就会出现日月昏暗,阴霾邪气侵害山川,阳气闭塞不通,大地昏蒙不明,云雾弥漫,日色无光,相应的雨露不能下降。天地之气不能交通,万物的生命就不能绵延。生命不能绵延,自然界高大的树木也会死亡。恶劣的气候发作,风雨无时,雨露当降而不降,草木不得滋润,生机郁塞,茂盛的禾苗也会枯槁不荣。贼风频频而至,暴雨不时而作,天地四时的变化失去了秩序,违背了正常的规律,致使万物的生命未及一半就夭折了。只有圣人能适应自然变化,注重养生之道,所以身无大病,因不背离自然万物的发展规律,而生机不会竭绝。

    违逆了春生之气,少阳就不会生发,以致肝气内郁而发生病变。违逆了夏长之气,太阳就不能盛长,以致心气内虚。违逆了秋收之气,太阴就不能收敛,以致肺热叶焦而胀满。违逆了冬藏之气,少阴就不能潜藏,以致肾气衰弱。

    四时阴阳的变化,是万物生命的根本,所以圣人在春夏季节保养阳气以适应生长的需要,在秋冬季节保养阴气以适应收藏的需要,顺从了生命发展的根本规律,就能与万物一样,在生、长、收藏的生命过程中运动发展。如果违逆了这个规律,就会戕伐生命力,破坏真元之气。因此,阴阳四时是万物的终结,是盛衰存亡的根本,违逆了它,就会产生灾害,顺从了它,就不会发生重病,这样便可谓懂得了养生之道。对于养生之道,圣人能够加以实行,愚人则时常有所违背。

    顺从阴阳的消长,就能生存,违逆了就会死亡。顺从了它,就会正常,违逆了它,就会乖乱。相反,如背道而行,就会使机体与自然环境相格拒。所以圣人不等病已经发生再去治疗,而是治疗在疾病发生之前,如同不等到乱事已经发生再去治理,而是治理在它发生之前。如果疾病已发生,然后再去治疗,乱子已经形成,然后再去治理,那就如同临渴而掘井,战乱发生了再去制造兵器,那不是太晚了吗?

    曲黎敏讲《黄帝内经》智慧养生 第一部(全集 8:29:49)

    曲黎敏讲《黄帝内经》智慧养生 第二部 (1:25:35)

      春三月,此爲發陳。天地俱生,萬物以榮,夜卧早起,廣步于庭,被發緩形,以使志生,生而勿殺,予而勿奪,賞而勿罰,此春氣之應,養生之道也;逆之則傷肝,夏爲實寒變,奉長者少。
      夏三月,此爲蕃秀。天地氣交,萬物華實,夜卧早起,無厭于日,使志勿怒,使華英成秀,使氣得洩,若所愛在外,此夏氣之應,養長之道也;逆之則傷心,秋爲痎瘧,奉收者少,冬至重病。
      秋三月,此謂容平,天氣以急,地氣以明,早卧早起,與雞俱興,使志安甯,以緩秋刑,收斂神氣,使秋氣平,無外其志,使肺氣清,此秋氣之應,養收之道也;逆之則傷肺,冬爲飧洩,奉藏者少。
      冬三月,此爲閉藏。水冰地坼,勿擾乎陽,早卧晚起,必待日光,使志若伏若匿,若有私意,若已有得,去寒就溫,無洩皮膚,使氣極奪。此冬氣之應,養藏之道也;逆之則傷腎,春爲痿厥,奉生者少。
      天氣清淨,光明者也,藏德不止,故不下也。
      天明則日月不明,邪害空竅。陽氣者閉塞,地氣者冒明,雲霧不精,則上應白露不下。
      交通不表,萬物命故不施,不施則名木多死。惡氣不發,風雨不節,白露不下,則菀不榮。賊風數至,暴雨數起,天地四時不相保,與道相失,則未央絕滅。
      唯聖人從之,故身無奇病,萬物不失,生氣不竭。
      逆春氣則少陽不生,肝氣内變。
      逆夏氣則太陽不長,心氣内洞。
      逆秋氣則太陰不收,肺氣焦滿。
      逆冬氣則少陰不藏,腎氣獨沉。
      夫四時陰陽者,萬物之根本也。所以聖人春夏養陽,秋冬養陰,以從其根;故與萬物沉浮于生長之門,逆其根則伐其本,壞其真矣。故陰陽四時者,萬物之終始也;生死之本也;逆之則災害生,從之則苛疾不起,是謂得道。道者聖人行之,愚者佩之。從陰陽則生,逆之則死;從之則治,逆之則亂。反順爲逆,是謂内格。
      是故聖人不治己病,治未病不治己亂、治未亂,此之謂也。夫病已成而後藥之,亂己成而後治之,譬猶渴而穿井,鬥而鑄錐,不亦晚乎?

      春三月,此为发陈。天地俱生,万物以荣,夜卧早起,广步于庭,被发缓形,以使志生,生而勿杀,予而勿夺,赏而勿罚,此春气之应,养生之道也;逆之则伤肝,夏为实寒变,奉长者少。
      夏三月,此为蕃秀。天地气交,万物华实,夜卧早起,无厌于日,使志勿怒,使华英成秀,使气得泄,若所爱在外,此夏气之应,养长之道也;逆之则伤心,秋为痎疟,奉收者少,冬至重病。
      秋三月,此谓容平,天气以急,地气以明,早卧早起,与鸡俱兴,使志安宁,以缓秋刑,收敛神气,使秋气平,无外其志,使肺气清,此秋气之应,养收之道也;逆之则伤肺,冬为飧泄,奉藏者少。
      冬三月,此为闭藏。水冰地坼,勿扰乎阳,早卧晚起,必待日光,使志若伏若匿,若有私意,若已有得,去寒就温,无泄皮肤,使气极夺。此冬气之应,养藏之道也;逆之则伤肾,春为痿厥,奉生者少。
      天气清净,光明者也,藏德不止,故不下也。
      天明则日月不明,邪害空窍。阳气者闭塞,地气者冒明,云雾不精,则上应白露不下。
      交通不表,万物命故不施,不施则名木多死。恶气不发,风雨不节,白露不下,则菀不荣。贼风数至,暴雨数起,天地四时不相保,与道相失,则未央绝灭。
      唯圣人从之,故身无奇病,万物不失,生气不竭。
      逆春气则少阳不生,肝气内变。
      逆夏气则太阳不长,心气内洞。
      逆秋气则太阴不收,肺气焦满。
      逆冬气则少阴不藏,肾气独沉。
      夫四时阴阳者,万物之根本也。所以圣人春夏养阳,秋冬养阴,以从其根;故与万物沉浮于生长之门,逆其根则伐其本,坏其真矣。故阴阳四时者,万物之终始也;生死之本也;逆之则灾害生,从之则苛疾不起,是谓得道。道者圣人行之,愚者佩之。从阴阳则生,逆之则死;从之则治,逆之则乱。反顺为逆,是谓内格。
      是故圣人不治己病,治未病不治己乱、治未乱,此之谓也。夫病已成而后药之,乱己成而后治之,譬犹渴而穿井,斗而铸锥,不亦晚乎?


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