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生氣通天論:汉英白话对照《黄帝内经》素问之三
2012年07月14日 | 黄帝内经 | 浏览 16,957 | 暂无评论
生氣通天論
Discussion on the Interrelationship Between Life and Nature
黃帝曰:夫自古通天者生之本,本於陰陽天地之間,六合之內,其氣九州九竅五藏十二節,皆通乎天氣。其生五,其氣三,數犯此者,則邪氣傷人,此壽命之本也。
【今译】黄帝说:自古以来,都以通于天气为生命的根本,而这个根本不外天之阴阳。天地之间,六合之内,大如九州之域,小如人的九窍、五脏、十二节,都与天气相通。天气衍生五行,阴阳之气又依盛衰消长而各分为三。如果经常违背阴阳五行的变化规律,那麽邪气就会伤害人体。因此,适应这个规律是寿命得以延续的根本。

【英译】Huangdi said, “From ancient times [it has been thought that] the root of life is closely bound up with the heavens and this root is Yin and Yang. [All those] within the heavens and the earth [as well as] the Liuhe (six directions) are interrelated with Tianqi (Heaven-Qi), [such as things in] the Jiuzhou ( nine geographical divisions) , the Jiuqiao (nine orifices in the human body), the Five Zang-Organs and the twelve Jie (joints) . [The Tianqi] evolves into the Wuxing (Five-Elements), [while the wax and wane of] Yin and Yang [can be divided into] three stages respectively. Frequent violation of these [rules] may give rise to the invasion of Xieqi ( Evil-Qi) into the body. [Abidance by] these rules is prerequisite to the prolongation of life.”

蒼天之氣清淨,則志意治,順之則陽氣固,雖有賊邪,弗能害也,此因時之序。故聖人傳精神,服天氣,而通神明。失之則內閉九竅,外壅肌肉,衛氣散解,此謂自傷,氣之削也。
【今译】苍天之气清净,人的精神就相应地调畅平和,顺应天气的变化,就会阳气固密,虽有贼风邪气,也不能加害于人,这是适应时序阴阳变化的结果。所以圣人能够专心致志,顺应天气,而通达阴阳变化之理。如果违逆了适应天气的原则,就会内使九窍不通,外使肌肉壅塞,卫气涣散不固,这是由于人们不能适应自然变化所致,称为自伤,阳气会因此而受到削弱。

【英译】"[If] Tianqi is fresh and clear, [it enables people to] maintain a cheerful and peaceful mood. Following [the progress of the Tianqi] fortifies Yangqi. [In this case] even there is Zeixie] (Thief-Evil) around, it cannot attack the body. This is the way to adapt to the changes of the seasons [to cultivate health]. The sages often concentrate their mind [on the adaptation to the changes of the seasons], so they can closely follow Tianqi (changes of Yin and Yang) . Violation [of these changes] will internally block the nine orifices, externally stagnate muscles and disperse Weiqi (Defensive-Qi), leading to a disorder known as self-impairment and inevitably damaging Qi. "

陽氣者若天與日,失其所,則折壽而不彰,故天運當以日光明。是故陽因而上,衛外者也。
【今译】人身的阳气,如象天上的太阳一样重要,假若阳气失去了正常的位次而不能发挥其重要作用,人就会减损寿命或夭折,生命机能亦暗弱不足。所以天体的正常运行,是因太阳的光明普照而显现出来,而人的阳气也应在上在外,并起到保护身体,抵御外邪的作用。

【英译】"Yangqi [in the human body] is just like the sun in the sky. Abnormal flow of it shortens people's life without any obvious signs. Thus the normal movement of the heavens depends on the normal shining of the sun. Similarly, Yangqi [in the body] must flow upwards to protect the exterior [of the body] . "

因於寒,欲如運樞,起居如驚,神氣乃浮。因於暑,汗煩則喘喝,靜則多言,體若燔炭,汗出而散。因於濕,首如裹,濕熱不攘,大筋緛短,小筋弛長,緛短為拘,弛長為痿。因於氣,為腫,四維相代,陽氣乃竭。
【今译】由于寒,阳气应如门轴在门臼中运转一样活动于体内。若起居猝急,扰动阳气,则易使神气外越。因于暑,则汗多烦躁,喝喝而喘,安静时多言多语。若身体发高热,则象碳火烧灼一样,一经出汗,热邪就能散去。因于湿,头部象有物蒙裹一样沉重。若湿热相兼而不得排除,则伤害大小诸筋,而出现短缩或弛纵,短缩的造成拘挛,弛纵的造成痿弱。由于风,可致浮肿。以上四种邪气维系缠绵不离,相互更代伤人,就会使阳气倾竭。

【英译】"In cold weather, [Yangqi] flows in the body just like a door-hinge rotating in the door-mortar. Any rash action in daily life will disperse Shenqi (Spirit-Qi) . Attacked by summer-heat [people will suffer from] sweating, dysphoria and asthmatic breath. [When] calming down, [they] talk incessantly. [If they] run a fever, their body may feel as hot as a piece of burning coal. [However] the fever disappears after sweating. Attacked by Dampness (or Wetness), [people will feel that their] heads are [as heavy as] being bound. If Damp-Heal is not removed in time, they will make the large sinew contracted and the small sinew relaxed, causing the contracted spasmodic and the relaxed flaccid. Attacked by Qi, [people will suffer from] edema (or dropsy). Alternative [edema and pain of] the four limbs [indicate that] Yangqi is on the verge of collapse. "

陽氣者,煩勞則張,精絕辟積,於夏使人煎厥。目盲不可以視,耳閉不可以聽,潰潰乎若壞都,汨汨乎不可止。
【今译】在人体烦劳过度时,阳气就会亢盛而外张,是阴精逐渐耗竭。如此多次重复,阳愈盛而阴愈亏,到夏季暑热之时,便易使人发生煎厥病,发作的时候眼睛昏蒙看不见东西,耳朵闭塞听不到声音,混乱之时就象都城崩毁,急流奔泻一样不可收拾。

【英译】"Overstrain will make Yangqi hyperactive and exhaust Jing (Essence) . Repeated overstrain in summer will make people suffer from Jianjue marked by blurred vision and loss of hearing. [This disease occurs suddenly] like the overflow of a river that is impossible to be brought under control. "

陽氣者,大怒則形氣絕,而血菀於上,使人薄厥。有傷於筋縱,其若不容,汗出偏沮,使人偏枯。汗出見濕,乃生痤疿。高梁之變,足生大丁,受如持虛。勞汗當風,寒薄為皻,鬱乃痤。
【今译】人的阳气,在大怒时就会上逆,血随气生而淤积于上,与身体其他部位阻隔不通,使人发生薄厥。若伤及诸筋,使筋弛纵不收,而不能随意运动。经常半身出汗,可以演变为半身不遂。出汗的时候,遇到湿邪阻遏就容易发生小的疮疖和痱子。经常吃肥肉精米厚味,足以导致发生疔疮,患病很容易,就象以空的容器接收东西一样。在劳动出汗时遇到风寒之邪,迫聚于皮腠形成粉刺,郁积化热而成疮疖。

【英译】"Rage disturbs Yangqi and drives Qi and blood to stagnate in the upper part [of the body] , eventually resulting in Bojue {means syncope caused by disorder of Qi and blood due to rage}. If the sinew is impaired, it will become flaccid and cannot move voluntarily. [Frequent] sweating over half of the body will eventually develop into paralysis. [If] sweating is complicated by invasion of Dampness, it will cause small furuncle and prickly heat. Besides, rich and greasy food tends to cause big furuncles and other diseases. Such a liability to diseases is just like to hold an empty container to receive things. Sweating complicated by attack of cold and wind during working makes cold accumulate in the skin to cause prickly heat, and the stagnation of which leads to acne.

陽氣者,精則養神,柔則養筋。開闔不得,寒氣從之,乃生大僂。陷脈為瘻,留連肉腠。俞氣化薄,傳為善畏,及為驚駭。營氣不從,逆於肉理,乃生癰腫。魄汗未盡,形弱而氣爍,穴俞以閉,發為風瘧。
【今译】人的阳气,既能养神而使精神慧爽,又能养筋而使诸筋柔韧。汗孔的开闭调节失常,寒气就会随之侵入,损伤阳气,以致筋失所养,造成身体俯曲不伸。寒气深陷脉中,留连肉腠之间,气血不通而郁积,久而成为疮瘘。从腧穴侵入的寒气内传而迫及五脏,损伤神志,就会出现恐惧和惊骇的症象。由于寒气的稽留,营气不能顺利地运行,阻逆于肌肉之间,就会发生痈肿。汗出未止的时候,形体与阳气都受到一定的消弱,若风寒内侵,俞穴闭阻,就会发生风疟。

【英译】"Nourished by Yangqi, Shen (Spirit) becomes refreshed; tonified by Yangqi the sinew appears soft''''. [When sweat pores] open and close abnormally, Hanqi (Cold-Qi) [will invade the body] through the sweat pores, making the body unable to straighten up. [If Hanqi] deepens into the Channels, [it will] cause fistulas that linger in the Roucou (muscular interstices). [If Hanqi] gets into the body through Shu (Acupoints), [it will make the patient] susceptible to fright and fear. [If] Yingqi (Nutrient-Qi) fails to flow normally and stagnates in the Roucou, it will result in carbuncle and ulcer. When sweating is not over, both the body and Qi will be weakened. [If] Acupoints are closed, Fengnue (Wind-Malaria Syndrome) will be caused. "

故風者,百病之始也,清靜則肉腠閉拒,雖有大風苛毒,弗之能害,此因時之序也。
【今译】风是引起各种疾病的起始原因,而只要人体保持精神的安定和劳逸适度等养生的原则,那麽,肌肉腠理就会密闭而有抗拒外邪的能力,虽有大风苛毒的侵染,也不能伤害,这正是循着时序的变化规律保养生气的结果。

【英译】"Wind is the factor responsible for various diseases. [However, if people maintain] a peaceful mood, Roucou will close up to prevent [pathogenic factors from invading the body]. In this case even violent-wind and virulent-toxin cannot impair the body. This is [the result of] following the changes of the seasons. "

故病久則傳化,上下不并,良醫弗為。故陽畜積病死,而陽氣當隔,隔者當寫,不亟正治,粗乃敗之。
【今译】病久不愈,邪留体内,则会内传并进一步演变,到了上下不通、阴阳阻隔的时候,虽有良医,也无能为力了。所以阳气蓄积,郁阻不通时,也会致死。对于这种阳气蓄积,阻隔不通者,应采用通泻的方法治疗,如不迅速正确施治,而被粗疏的医生所误,就会导致死亡。

【英译】"Prolonged disease is liable to transmission and change. [If] the upper [part of the body] cannot communicate with the lower [part of the body], even excellent doctors are helpless. Therefore [excessive] accumulation of Yangqi leads to severe disease or even death. [Excessive accumulation of] Yangqi stagnates [Qi] and should be dispersed by Xie (purgation therapy). Delayed treatment or incorrect treatment may make the condition fatal. "

故陽氣者,一日而主外,平旦人氣生,日中而陽氣隆,日西而陽氣已虛,氣門乃閉。是故暮而收拒,無擾筋骨,無見霧露,反此三時,形乃困薄。
【今译】人身的阳气,白天主司体表:清晨的时候,阳气开始活跃,并趋向于外,中午时,阳气达到最旺盛的阶段,太阳偏西时,体表的阳气逐渐虚少,汗孔也开始闭合。所以到了晚上,阳气收敛拒守于内,这时不要扰动筋骨,也不要接近雾露。如果违反了一天之内这三个时间的阳气活动规律,形体被邪气侵扰则困乏而衰薄。

【英译】"Yangqi [in the human body] protects the external [of the body] in the daytime. In the morning, it becomes active; in the noon, it reaches its peak; in the afternoon. it begins to decline and the sweat pores close up accordingly. When it becomes dark, [Yangqi] stops moving and stays inside the body. Thus the bones and sinews should not be disturbed and [ care should be taken] to avoid being exposed to dew. Violation of [the movement of Yangqi] at these three stages [i. e. morning. noon and afternoon] will eventually weaken the body. "

歧伯曰:陰者,藏精而起亟也,陽者,衛外而為固也。陰不勝其陽,則脈流薄疾,并乃狂。陽不勝其陰,則五藏氣爭,九竅不通。是以聖人陳陰陽,筋脈和同,骨髓堅固,氣血皆從。如是,則內外調和,邪不能害,耳目聰明,氣立如故。
【今译】歧伯说:阴藏精于内而不断地扶持阳气;阳卫护于外使体表固密。如果阴不胜阳,阳气亢盛,就使血脉流动急促,若再受热邪,阳气更盛就会发为狂症。如果阳不胜阴,阴气亢盛,就会使五脏之气不调,以致九窍不通。所以圣人使阴阳平衡,无所片胜,从而达到筋脉调和,骨髓坚固,血气畅顺。这样,则会内外调和,邪气不能侵害,耳目聪明,气机正常运行。

【英译】Qibo said. "Yin keeps the Jing (Essence) inside and supplements [Yangqi], while Yang protects the exterior to keep it firm. [If] Yin fails to dominate over Yang, [blood in] the Channels will flow rapidly, leading to mania [if the condition is severe]. If Yang fails to dominate over Yin, Qi from the Five Zang-Organs will be in disorder, blocking the nine orifices. So the sages [are always trying to] balance Yin and Yang to ensure normal coordination between musculatures and Channels, strengthen bones and marrow as well as smooth the flow of Qi and blood. In such away. the internal and the external will be harmonized, the Xie (Evil) cannot impair [the body], the ears and the eyes will hear and see well and Qi will flow normally as usual.

風客淫氣,精乃亡,邪傷肝也。因而飽食,筋脈橫解,腸澼為痔。因而大飲,則氣逆。因而強力,腎氣乃傷,高骨乃壞。
【今译】风邪侵犯人体,伤及阳气,并逐步侵入内脏,阴精也就日渐消亡,这是由于邪气伤肝所致。若饮食过饱,阻碍升降之机,会发生筋脉弛纵、肠澼及疥疮等病症。若饮酒过量,会造成气机上逆。若过度用力,会损伤肾气,腰部脊骨也会受到损伤。

【英译】"When wind attacks the body. [it gradually] damages Qi and exhausts Jing (Essence). [This is because of] the impairment of the liver by Xie ( Evil). [Under these circumstances,] overeating will make sinews and Channels flaccid, [consequently leading to] Changpi (dysentery) and haemorrhoids; overdrinking will drive Qi flow adversely; over-exertion will damage Shenqi ( Kidney-Qi) and Gaogu (spine on the lumbar region). "

凡陰陽之要,陽密乃固,兩者不和,若春無秋,若冬無夏,因而和之,是謂聖度。故陽強不能密,陰氣乃絕,陰平陽秘,精神乃治,陰陽離決,精氣乃絕。
【今译】大凡阴阳的关键,以阳气的致密最为重要。阳气致密,阴气就能固守于内。阴阳二者不协调,就象一年之中,只有春天而没有秋天,只有冬天而没有夏天一样。因此,阴阳的协调配合,相互为用,是维持正常生理状态的最高标准。所以阳气亢盛,不能固密,阴气就会竭绝。阴气和平,阳气固密,人的精神才会正常。如果阴阳分离决绝,人的精气就会随之而竭绝。

【英译】"The key factor of Yin and Yang is that only when Yang is compact can it strengthen [Yin-Essence ]. The imbalance between Yin and Yang is just like [a year that] only has spring but no autumn or only has winter but no summer. Thus balancing [Yin and Yang] is the Shengdu ( the supreme standard ) [for cultivating health] . If Yang is too powerful to be compact, Yinqi will be exhausted. Only when Yin is at peace and Yang is compact can Jingshen (Essence-Spirit) be normal. If Yin and Yang separate from each other. Jingqi (Essence-Qi) will be completely exhausted.”

因於露風,乃生寒熱。是以春傷於風,邪氣留連,乃為洞泄。夏傷於暑,秋為痎瘧。秋傷於濕,上逆而欬,發為痿厥。冬傷於寒,春必溫病。四時之氣,更傷五藏。
【今译】由于雾露风寒之邪的侵犯,就会发生寒热。春天伤于风邪,留而不去,会发生急骤的泄泻。夏天伤于暑邪,到秋天会发生疟疾病。秋天伤于湿邪,邪气上逆,会发生咳嗽,并且可能发展为痿厥病。冬天伤于寒气,到来年的春天,就要发生温病。四时的邪气,交替伤害人的五脏。

【英译】"Attack by dew and wind will cause cold and fever. Attack by wind in spring will lead to Dongxie (acute diarrhea) if Xieqi (Evil-Qi) lingers [in the body]. Attack by summer-heat in summer will cause Jienue (malaria) in autumn. Attack by Shi (Dampness) in autumn will cause cough [if it] moves upwards, [eventually] changing into Weijue (weakness of the limbs) . Attack by cold in winter will cause Wenbing (warm disease or seasonal febrile disease) in spring. Qi ( Evil-Qi ) in the four seasons alternatively impairs the Five Zang-Organs.”

陰之所生,本在五味,陰之五宮,傷在五味。是故味過於酸,肝氣以津,脾氣乃絕。味過於鹹,大骨氣勞,短肌,心氣抑。味過於甘,心氣喘滿,色黑腎氣不衡。味過於苦,脾氣不濡,胃氣乃厚。味過於辛,筋脈沮弛,精神乃央,是故謹和五味,骨正筋柔,氣血以流,湊理以密,如是,則骨氣以精,謹道如法,長有天命。
【今译】阴精的产生,来源于饮食五味。储藏阴精的五脏,也会因五味而受伤,过食酸味,会使肝气淫溢而亢盛,从而导致脾气的衰竭;过食咸味,会使骨骼损伤,肌肉短缩,心气抑郁;过食甜味,会使心气满闷,气逆作喘,颜面发黑,肾气失于平衡;过食苦味,会使脾气过燥而不濡润,从而使胃气滞;过食辛味,会使筋脉败坏,发生弛纵,精神受损。因此谨慎地调和五味,会使骨骼强健,筋脉柔和,气血通畅,腠理致密,这样,骨气就精强有力。所以重视养生之道,并且依照正确的方法加以实行,就会长期保有天赋的生命力。

【英译】"Yin is transformed from the Wuwei (Five-F1avors). The Wugong (Five Zang-Organs) [that store] Yin but also can be damaged by the Wuwei (Five-Flavors) . Excessive taking of sour [flavor] makes Ganqi (Liver-Qi) hyperactive and Piqi (Spleen-Qi) exhausted; excessive taking of salty [flavor] impairs the skeleton, makes muscles atrophic and inhibits Xinqi (Heart-Qi); excessive taking of sweet [flavor] makes Xinqi (Heart-Qi) stuffy, the complexion blackish and Shenqi (Kidney-Qi) imbalanced; excessive taking of bitter [flavor] makes Piqi (Spleen-Qi) stagnant and Weiqi (Stomach-Qi) thick; excessive taking of pungent [flavor] makes the sinews and Channels flaccid and Jingshen (Essence-Spirit) weary. So only when the Five-Flavors are well balanced can the bones be straightened, the sinews be softened, Qi and blood flow smoothly, Couli (muscular interstices) be intensified and Guqi (Bone-Qi) be strengthened. Close abidance by such a way [of cultivating health] [will enable one to enjoy] a full natural span of life.”

    中文名称:黄帝内经
    英文名称:Huangdi Neijing; Inner Canon of Huangdi; Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor
    定义:现存最早的中医理论著作,约成书于战国时期。

    黄帝说:自古以来,都以通于天气为生命的根本,而这个根本不外天之阴阳。天地之间,六合之内,大如九州之域,小如人的九窍、五脏、十二节,都与天气相通。天气衍生五行,阴阳之气又依盛衰消长而各分为三。如果经常违背阴阳五行的变化规律,那麽邪气就会伤害人体。因此,适应这个规律是寿命得以延续的根本。

    苍天之气清净,人的精神就相应地调畅平和,顺应天气的变化,就会阳气固密,虽有贼风邪气,也不能加害于人,这是适应时序阴阳变化的结果。所以圣人能够专心致志,顺应天气,而通达阴阳变化之理。如果违逆了适应天气的原则,就会内使九窍不通,外使肌肉壅塞,卫气涣散不固,这是由于人们不能适应自然变化所致,称为自伤,阳气会因此而受到削弱。

    人身的阳气,如象天上的太阳一样重要,假若阳气失去了正常的位次而不能发挥其重要作用,人就会减损寿命或夭折,生命机能亦暗弱不足。所以天体的正常运行,是因太阳的光明普照而显现出来,而人的阳气也应在上在外,并起到保护身体,抵御外邪的作用。

    由于寒,阳气应如门轴在门臼中运转一样活动于体内。若起居猝急,扰动阳气,则易使神气外越。因于暑,则汗多烦躁,喝喝而喘,安静时多言多语。若身体发高热,则象碳火烧灼一样,一经出汗,热邪就能散去。因于湿,头部象有物蒙裹一样沉重。若湿热相兼而不得排除,则伤害大小诸筋,而出现短缩或弛纵,短缩的造成拘挛,弛纵的造成痿弱。由于风,可致浮肿。以上四种邪气维系缠绵不离,相互更代伤人,就会使阳气倾竭。

    在人体烦劳过度时,阳气就会亢盛而外张,是阴精逐渐耗竭。如此多次重复,阳愈盛而阴愈亏,到夏季暑热之时,便易使人发生煎厥病,发作的时候眼睛昏蒙看不见东西,耳朵闭塞听不到声音,混乱之时就象都城崩毁,急流奔泻一样不可收拾。

    人的阳气,在大怒时就会上逆,血随气生而淤积于上,与身体其他部位阻隔不通,使人发生薄厥。若伤及诸筋,使筋弛纵不收,而不能随意运动。经常半身出汗,可以演变为半身不遂。出汗的时候,遇到湿邪阻遏就容易发生小的疮疖和痱子。经常吃肥肉精米厚味,足以导致发生疔疮,患病很容易,就象以空的容器接收东西一样。在劳动出汗时遇到风寒之邪,迫聚于皮腠形成粉刺,郁积化热而成疮疖。

    人的阳气,既能养神而使精神慧爽,又能养筋而使诸筋柔韧。汗孔的开闭调节失常,寒气就会随之侵入,损伤阳气,以致筋失所养,造成身体俯曲不伸。寒气深陷脉中,留连肉腠之间,气血不通而郁积,久而成为疮瘘。从腧穴侵入的寒气内传而迫及五脏,损伤神志,就会出现恐惧和惊骇的症象。由于寒气的稽留,营气不能顺利地运行,阻逆于肌肉之间,就会发生痈肿。汗出未止的时候,形体与阳气都受到一定的消弱,若风寒内侵,俞穴闭阻,就会发生风疟。

    风是引起各种疾病的起始原因,而只要人体保持精神的安定和劳逸适度等养生的原则,那麽,肌肉腠理就会密闭而有抗拒外邪的能力,虽有大风苛毒的侵染,也不能伤害,这正是循着时序的变化规律保养生气的结果。

    病久不愈,邪留体内,则会内传并进一步演变,到了上下不通、阴阳阻隔的时候,虽有良医,也无能为力了。所以阳气蓄积,郁阻不通时,也会致死。对于这种阳气蓄积,阻隔不通者,应采用通泻的方法治疗,如不迅速正确施治,而被粗疏的医生所误,就会导致死亡。

    人身的阳气,白天主司体表:清晨的时候,阳气开始活跃,并趋向于外,中午时,阳气达到最旺盛的阶段,太阳偏西时,体表的阳气逐渐虚少,汗孔也开始闭合。所以到了晚上,阳气收敛拒守于内,这时不要扰动筋骨,也不要接近雾露。如果违反了一天之内这三个时间的阳气活动规律,形体被邪气侵扰则困乏而衰薄。

    歧伯说:阴藏精于内而不断地扶持阳气;阳是卫护于外使体表固密的。如果阴不胜阳,阳气亢盛,就使血脉流动迫促,若再受热邪,阳气更盛就会发为狂症。如果阳不胜阴,阴气亢盛,就会使五脏之气不调,以致九窍不通。所以圣人使阴阳平衡,无所片胜,从而达到筋脉调和,骨髓坚固,血气畅顺。这样,则会内外调和,邪气不能侵害,耳目聪明,气机正常运行。

    风邪侵犯人体,伤及阳气,并逐步侵入内脏,阴精也就日渐消亡,这是由于邪气伤肝所致。若饮食过饱,阻碍升降之机,会发生筋脉弛纵、肠澼及疥疮等病症。若饮酒过量,会造成气机上逆。若过度用力,会损伤肾气,腰部脊骨也会受到损伤。

    大凡阴阳的关键,以阳气的致密最为重要。阳气致密,阴气就能固守于内。阴阳二者不协调,就象一年之中,只有春天而没有秋天,只有冬天而没有夏天一样。因此,阴阳的协调配合,相互为用,是维持正常生理状态的最高标准。所以阳气亢盛,不能固密,阴气就会竭绝。阴气和平,阳气固密,人的精神才会正常。如果阴阳分离决绝,人的精气就会随之而竭绝。

    由于雾露风寒之邪的侵犯,就会发生寒热。春天伤于风邪,留而不去,会发生急骤的泄泻。夏天伤于暑邪,到秋天会发生疟疾病。秋天伤于湿邪,邪气上逆,会发生咳嗽,并且可能发展为痿厥病。冬天伤于寒气,到来年的春天,就要发生温病。四时的邪气,交替伤害人的五脏。

    阴精的产生,来源于饮食五味。储藏阴精的五脏,也会因五味而受伤,过食酸味,会使肝气淫溢而亢盛,从而导致脾气的衰竭;过食咸味,会使骨骼损伤,肌肉短缩,心气抑郁;过食甜味,会使心气满闷,气逆作喘,颜面发黑,肾气失于平衡;过食苦味,会使脾气过燥而不濡润,从而使胃气滞;过食辛味,会使筋脉败坏,发生弛纵,精神受损。因此谨慎地调和五味,会使骨骼强健,筋脉柔和,气血通畅,腠理致密,这样,骨气就精强有力。所以重视养生之道,并且依照正确的方法加以实行,就会长期保有天赋的生命力。

    曲黎敏讲《黄帝内经》智慧养生 第一部(全集 8:29:49)

    曲黎敏讲《黄帝内经》智慧养生 第二部 (1:25:35)

      黃帝曰:夫自古通天者,生之本,本于陰陽。
      天地之間,六合之内,其氣九州、九竅、五髒十二節,皆通乎天氣。
      其生五,其氣三,數犯此者,則邪氣傷人,此壽命之本也。
      蒼天之氣,清靜則志意治,順之則陽氣固,雖有賊邪,弗能害也,此因時之序。
      故聖人傳精神,服天氣而通神明。失之則内閉九竅,外壅肌肉,衛氣解散,此謂自傷,氣之削也。
      陽氣者,若天與日,失其所,則折壽而不彰。故天運當以日光明。是故陽因而上,衛外者也。
      因于寒,欲如運樞,起居如驚,神氣乃浮。
      因于暑汗,煩則喘喝,靜則多言。
      體若燔炭,汗出而散。
      因于濕,首如裹。濕熱不攘,大筋緛短,小筋馳長。緛短爲拘,馳長爲痿。
      因于氣,爲腫。四維相代,陽氣乃竭。
      陽氣者,煩勞則張,精絕,辟積于夏,使人煎厥;目盲不可以視,耳閉不可以聽,潰潰乎若壞都,汨汨乎不可止。
      陽氣者,大怒則形氣絕而血菀于上,使人薄厥。
      有傷于筋,縱,其若不容。
      汗出偏沮,使人偏枯。
      汗出見濕,乃生痤疿。
      高梁之變,足生大丁受如持虛。
      勞汗當風,寒薄爲皶,郁乃痤。
      陽氣者,精則養神,柔則養筋。
      開阖不得,寒氣從之,乃生大偻。
      陷脈爲瘘,留連肉腠。
      俞氣化薄,傳爲善畏,及爲驚駭。
      營氣不從,逆于肉理,乃生癰腫。
      魄汗未盡,形弱而氣爍,穴俞以閉,發爲風瘧。
      故風者,百病之始也,清靜則肉腠閉拒,雖有大風苛毒,弗之能害,此因時之序也。
      故病久則傳化,上下不并,良醫弗爲。
      故陽畜積病死,而陽氣當隔。隔者當瀉,不亟正治,粗乃敗之。
      故陽氣者,一日而主外。平旦人氣生,日中而陽氣隆,日西而陽氣已虛,氣門乃閉。是故暮而收拒,無擾筋骨,無見霧露,反此三時,形乃困薄。
      岐伯曰:陰者藏精而起極也,陽者衛外而爲固也。陰不勝其陽,則脈流薄疾,并乃狂。陽不勝其陰,則五髒氣争,九竅不通。
      是以聖人陳陰陽,筋脈和同,骨髓堅固,氣血皆從。如是則内外調和,邪不能害,耳目聰明,氣立如故。
      風客淫氣,精乃亡,邪傷肝也。
      因而飽食,筋脈橫解,腸澼爲痔。
      因而大飲,則氣逆。
      因而強力,腎氣乃傷,高骨乃壞。
      凡陰陽之要,陽密乃固,兩者不和,若春無秋,若冬無夏。因而和之,是謂聖度。
      故陽強不能密,陰氣乃絕。
      陰平陽秘,精神乃治;陰陽離決,精氣乃絕。
      因于露風,乃生寒熱。
      是以春傷于風,邪氣留連,乃爲洞洩。
      夏傷于暑,秋爲痎瘧。
      秋傷于濕,上逆而咳,發爲痿厥。
      冬傷于寒,春必溫病。
      四時之氣,更傷五髒。
      陰之所生,本在五味;陰之五宮,傷在五味。
      是故味過于酸,肝氣以津,脾氣乃絕。
      味過于鹹,大骨氣勞,短肌,心氣抑。
      味過于甘,心氣喘滿,色黑,腎氣不衡。
      味過于苦,脾氣不濡,胃氣乃厚。
      味過于辛,筋脈沮弛,精神乃央。
      是故謹和五味,骨正筋柔,氣血以流,腠理以密,如是則骨氣以精。謹道如法,長有天命。

      黄帝曰:夫自古通天者,生之本,本于阴阳。
      天地之间,六合之内,其气九州、九窍、五脏十二节,皆通乎天气。
      其生五,其气三,数犯此者,则邪气伤人,此寿命之本也。
      苍天之气,清静则志意治,顺之则阳气固,虽有贼邪,弗能害也,此因时之序。
      故圣人传精神,服天气而通神明。失之则内闭九窍,外壅肌肉,卫气解散,此谓自伤,气之削也。
      阳气者,若天与日,失其所,则折寿而不彰。故天运当以日光明。是故阳因而上,卫外者也。
      因于寒,欲如运枢,起居如惊,神气乃浮。
      因于暑汗,烦则喘喝,静则多言。
      体若燔炭,汗出而散。
      因于湿,首如裹。湿热不攘,大筋緛短,小筋驰长。緛短为拘,驰长为痿。
      因于气,为肿。四维相代,阳气乃竭。
      阳气者,烦劳则张,精绝,辟积于夏,使人煎厥;目盲不可以视,耳闭不可以听,溃溃乎若坏都,汨汨乎不可止。
      阳气者,大怒则形气绝而血菀于上,使人薄厥。
      有伤于筋,纵,其若不容。
      汗出偏沮,使人偏枯。
      汗出见湿,乃生痤疿。
      高梁之变,足生大丁受如持虚。
      劳汗当风,寒薄为皶,郁乃痤。
      阳气者,精则养神,柔则养筋。
      开阖不得,寒气从之,乃生大偻。
      陷脉为瘘,留连肉腠。
      俞气化薄,传为善畏,及为惊骇。
      营气不从,逆于肉理,乃生痈肿。
      魄汗未尽,形弱而气烁,穴俞以闭,发为风疟。
      故风者,百病之始也,清静则肉腠闭拒,虽有大风苛毒,弗之能害,此因时之序也。
      故病久则传化,上下不并,良医弗为。
      故阳畜积病死,而阳气当隔。隔者当泻,不亟正治,粗乃败之。
      故阳气者,一日而主外。平旦人气生,日中而阳气隆,日西而阳气已虚,气门乃闭。是故暮而收拒,无扰筋骨,无见雾露,反此三时,形乃困薄。
      岐伯曰:阴者藏精而起极也,阳者卫外而为固也。阴不胜其阳,则脉流薄疾,并乃狂。阳不胜其阴,则五脏气争,九窍不通。
      是以圣人陈阴阳,筋脉和同,骨髓坚固,气血皆从。如是则内外调和,邪不能害,耳目聪明,气立如故。
      风客淫气,精乃亡,邪伤肝也。
      因而饱食,筋脉横解,肠澼为痔。
      因而大饮,则气逆。
      因而强力,肾气乃伤,高骨乃坏。
      凡阴阳之要,阳密乃固,两者不和,若春无秋,若冬无夏。因而和之,是谓圣度。
      故阳强不能密,阴气乃绝。
      阴平阳秘,精神乃治;阴阳离决,精气乃绝。
      因于露风,乃生寒热。
      是以春伤于风,邪气留连,乃为洞泄。
      夏伤于暑,秋为痎疟。
      秋伤于湿,上逆而咳,发为痿厥。
      冬伤于寒,春必温病。
      四时之气,更伤五脏。
      阴之所生,本在五味;阴之五宫,伤在五味。
      是故味过于酸,肝气以津,脾气乃绝。
      味过于咸,大骨气劳,短肌,心气抑。
      味过于甘,心气喘满,色黑,肾气不衡。
      味过于苦,脾气不濡,胃气乃厚。
      味过于辛,筋脉沮弛,精神乃央。
      是故谨和五味,骨正筋柔,气血以流,腠理以密,如是则骨气以精。谨道如法,长有天命。


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